“Timothy! Guard what was committed to your trust, avoiding the profane and idle babblings and contradictions of what is falsely called knowledge… nor give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which cause disputes rather than godly edification which is in faith.” (1 Tim 6:20; 1 Tim 1:4)

Conclusions on the gap theory

I find it profound that the Creator of heaven and earth did not make one mention of the devil in His glorious creation account. Nevertheless, the gap theory has replaced this absence of information about the Destroyer with an imaginary unspecified period of time, then filled this void with stories that are meant to reveal the devil’s claimed God-like powers, God-given authority and monumental potential.

Satan has always had an inflated sense of his own importance and would be thrilled with any doctrine that elevates his standing higher than it has ever been, or indeed ever could be, and which embellishes all his schemes as achievements, but which in fact never happened. That is, that God had originally wanted Lucifer to sit on the throne over all the earth, with the potential to be the supreme ruler of the universe, but he destroyed all of God’s beautiful creation. Furthermore, gap creation has the devil pronounce war in heaven and take his mighty forces to battle against the Almighty more than once.

When I began my exploration into the gap theory (in 2014), I had not expected to end up where I am today. I knew it was a sketchy creation narrative that didn’t match what I was reading in the Bible and spent most of my time chipping away at the leaves and twigs of this teaching. (For example, the alternative meanings of hayah, bara, tohuw, bohuw, asah, and the handful of random verses from the Bible said to support this interpretation of Scripture.)

The old-earth science aspect was easy for me, because I had already investigated many of the same arguments when I examined the biblical account of creation against the claims of theistic evolutionary theology from 2009 to 2013.

I know that many gap creationists are not dogmatic and belligerent, nor are they given to ridiculing young earth creationists. (I have some very dear friends who believe in the gap theory.) In fact, many Christians have accepted this teaching without ever having really thought about it, so it does not play a big part in their understanding of God and thus they have managed to avoid much of its theological fall-out. And as it is not a salvation issue, many cast it off as unimportant what one believes about the age of the earth.

But if a person thinks this matter through to its theological conclusions (whether it be theistic evolution, gap creation, the gap principle or progressive creation), they will realise that all old earth teachings alter our perception of the character of God, the amount of power and authority attributed to the devil, and the nature of evil. It will have serious repercussions on a person’s faith in the future, too. (Refer to Chapter 11, ‘Gap Creationism and the End Time’.)

That is because the gap theory (and every old earth creation narrative) is a doctrine that claims evil, suffering and death were already present on the earth before the original sin of the first man! (Refer to Chapter 2, ‘Origin of the Devil’.) 

This, however, is in conflict with the Bible’s creation account, which consistently connects the sin of the first man, Adam – which brought the curse of death into an otherwise exceedingly good creation – directly to the last Adam, Christ, who became our Redeemer on the Cross (Gen 3:14; 1 Cor 15:45Rom 5:12; Rom 8:22).

Gap creation (and all old-earth theories) also alters our view of Scripture, by insisting that God’s Word is not enough by itself but requires special interpretation by esteemed scholars to decipher its “hidden messages”, which “reveal” Genesis should not be taken literally.

putting it all together

When I began to work through the gap theory, so that I could understand its theological implications and find its historical roots, and I discovered that the trunk of the gap theory tree is an occult doctrine of Babylonian Mystery Religion origins, even I was a bit surprised (although not entirely). What had at first appeared to be a strange and murky teaching had now turned into something quite sinister. (Refer to Chapter 10, ‘The Gap Principle and Kabbalah Connection’, and Chapter 4, ‘Devil Cast to Earth’.)

And no wonder, because when gap theology is sifted through we find that Satan has now taken on a major role in both the creation account and the gospel message. Also, his capabilities are said to be so great that he can even destroy the earth and rally his formidable forces to do battle against God’s angels, bringing a level of destruction into God’s heavenly realm, too. 

Furthermore, it is a teaching that elevates the devil’s powers and authority on one hand while serving to diminish those of Jesus Christ’s, our Creator and Redeemer, on the other hand. Even though some people build on this doctrine more than others, the trunk of the tree and its fruit are the same. 

Not all gap creationists believe the numerous aspects I have detailed in my exploration, but these are the logical outcomes of this doctrine when it is followed through to its natural conclusions, as is evident in this study. It is not my intention here to criticise gap creationists personally but to encourage them to seriously examine the creation account they have adopted.

Young earth vs. an old earth

Young earth creation and the gap theory can’t both be true – one is from God and the other one is not. Below I state some of the  differences, which affect major doctrines of the Christian faith:


Each creation narrative has a different view of God’s goodness, the development of evil and the effects of sin.

Young earth creation sees the suffering, decay and death of all life in the animal kingdom (not just man) as a direct consequence of Adam’s sin and the curse.

And all the fossils and rock layers on the planet today (as pictured here) are attributed to the catastrophic global flood in Noah’s day, a judgment that is clearly documented in Scripture and not any imaginary event prior to the creation of man (Gen 6:12-13; Matt 24:37-39).

The gap theory, on the other hand, sees suffering and death in the animal kingdom as the natural biological system of God’s choice. This is because it has accepted the explanation of the (evolutionary) scientific establishment that the fossil record reaches back 3.8 billion years (i.e. before man was created). If this gap theory view is to be consistent, it will (and does) spill over into the “re-creation”, with the belief that death in the animal kingdom is natural, and that God’s curse was only directed to man (and the planet).  For any gap creationist who doesn’t go along with this view, how would they explain adversity, calamity and the biological death of animals on the earth before Adam sinned? (Refer to Chapter 5, ‘How Did Evil Develop?’)

In gap creation, the fossils (which bear evidence of disease and suffering) and the geological strata of the earth are said to explain the destruction on the “previous earth”. As for Noah’s flood, it must, then, have only been local or tranquil. (After all, any global breaking up of the great deep and catastrophic worldwide flooding over the face of the earth, which lasted several months during the days of Noah, would have ripped up all the rock layers and destroyed any fossils.)


Each creation story also has a different understanding of Scripture.

Young earth creation views the words in the Bible as sufficient. It does not turn to outside sources that claim to decipher hidden meanings. Nor does it introduce new terms, apply double-mindedness, or require the Hebrew manuscripts to be changed or added to in an effort to align its creation account with old-earth naturalistic philosophy, or the ideas and traditions held by modern Bible commenters or ancient Jewish mystics. Rather, young earth creation believes, by faith, that the Genesis scribe (Moses) penned the creation account as a continuous, single-minded narrative that means what it says and says what it means.

The gap theory, on the other hand, cannot exist on Scripture alone (Sola Scriptura). Rather, it relies totally on the opinions of others – that is, modern Bible commentaries, eg. C. I. Scofield’s Reference Bible, and second century Jewish sages, eg. A. C. Custance’s numerous cabbalistic sources. (Refer to Chapter 9, ‘History of the Gap Theory’.) Furthermore, the gap theory is an equivocal (double-minded) doctrine that says one thing and means something quite different. One proof of this is that in the gap theory, the “creation” has to cryptically divide into an “initial creation” and a “re-creation”, which are almost always referred to as the “creation”, leaving the reader in the dark by not drawing a clear distinction between the two. (Refer to Chapter 1, ‘The Gap Theory’s Distortion of Language’.)


Each creation story has different explanations about the creation itself.

Young earth creation views this earth as having been made in a perfect state of beauty with God as its sole authority and no presence of evil until sometime after the first literal seventh day of created time – the very first Sabbath, when God declared his CREATION exceedingly good and rested from all his labours (Gen 2:2). It also acknowledges that God has always held the title of Lord of both heaven and earth. (Refer to Chapter 3, ‘The Devil in the Garden’.)

“For the kingdom is the LORD’s, And He rules over the nations.” (Ps 22:28)

“The LORD reigns; Let the earth rejoice; Let the multitude of isles be glad!” (Ps 97:1)

“God, who made the world and everything in it, since He is Lord of heaven and earth, does not dwell in temples made with hands.” (Acts 17:24)

The devil’s power, on the other hand, is limited to this present evil age as “the god of this world (2 Cor 4:4) and “the prince of the power of the air” (Eph 2:2). That is, through a deceptive and evil system of communications.

The gap theory sees this “current earth”, the entire creation at this time in fact, as having begun in a state of chaos, confusion and horror, having suffered apocalyptic devastation at the hands of the devil as a result of his rebellion (or maybe at the hands of God, as there is no agreement on this). Why the Creator God allowed Satan to wreak such havoc, we are not told. (Or why God would do it himself is a mystery.) Now God had no other option than to set about remaking his once- beautiful creation. Not only that but He had to conduct His work under the spiritual darkness of Satan, who was still the rightful ruler of the planet (having not yet been disposed) and thus already present in Eden.


These two creation narratives also have different emphases/versions of the gospel message.

Young earth creation focuses on Christ having come to the earth to redeem mankind from the bondage of sin and the curse of death through his sacrificial death on the Cross and his resurrection to life. Those who believe, repent, are baptised and follow his commandments (Mark 1:15; Acts 2:38; John 14:15) are given a new Spirit and become a new creation (2 Cor 5:17). They are no longer subject to the god of this world. Their allegiance is now to a new King, Jesus Christ the righteous, who was sinless and obedient to the Cross and victorious over death. Christ has provided the way for all mankind to be released from the bondage of the devil and to become citizens of this new kingdom (1 Tim 2:3-6; 2 Pet 3:9).

This kingdom began as small as a mustard seed – at the beginning of the first-century fellowship of believers (the church) on the Day of Pentecost, 50 days after Christ had fulfilled his mission on earth. And it will eventually become a reality for all the inhabitants of the earth at Christ’s return (Matt 313:31-32). This will make the devil’s office, as the prince and power of the air, obsolete, and he will be removed permanently (Rev 20:1-3, 10). Christ will then sit on the righteous throne of David (Luke 1:32). 

In gap creation (the version I am familiar with) the message that Christ came to die for our sins is clear, but there is also another emphasis; one that is unbiblical. It is the teaching that Christ had to come to earth to qualify as a human (the perfect Last Adam) so that He could replace the devil (who usurped the First Adam) on his throne over the planet. 

It also sees, as important to the gospel message, the need to understand how highly God valued Lucifer (before he became Satan) for billions of years, and to know about all his powerful exploits and unrestrained authority over two earths.

In this creation narrative, it is claimed that the devil has been the ruler over two earths: in the “initial creation” and in the “re-creation”.

This is because the kingdom of God is said to have not happened yet, nor can it while the devil rules the planet. But when Christ returns, He will replace the devil on his throne over the earth and usher in the kingdom of God. (Refer to Chapter 3, ‘The Devil in the Garden’.)

I acknowledge there would be other versions of the gap theory that would not agree with all these points. Either way, it is a doctrine that attributes great power and unrestrained authority to the devil and teaches how highly God valued Lucifer/Satan in His plan for billions of years.


Young earth creation and the gap theory have different understandings of the significance of the seventh-day Sabbath.

Young earth creation sees the Sabbath connected to God’s act of creation, believing it to be THE LITERAL first-ever seventh day of created time, when God rested from ALL his labours after the six-day creation (Ex 20:11). (Refer to Chapter 12, ‘In the Beginning – A Young Earth Creation Narrative’.)

Gap creation does not connect the Sabbath to the creation, but only as far back as the Law of Moses. One gap-theory believing, Sabbath-keeping pastor we spoke to said the Sabbath was a day of worship but he couldn’t explain why. And it is hardly surprising, because in gap creation the Sabbath is thought to be A SYMBOLIC seventh day, as billions of other seventh days are said to have preceded it. Thus it has a different explanation for the Sabbath than that of Moses and Jesus (Ex 20:11; Mark 10:6). Interestingly, I have never yet heard a gap creationist connect the Sabbath to God resting after the six-day “Renovation”. Presumably this is because such a claim clashes with Scripture so blatantly, which everyone – even gap creationists themselves – would feel intensely uncomfortable with!


Young earth creation and the gap theory view the devil’s character and authority  differently.

Young earth creation exposes the devil as a liar, murderer and coward from the beginning of creation, not having the capability to do anything outside of God’s supreme jurisdiction. This creation narrative puts Satan totally under God’s control in every way. From this theological position, Lucifer was never given rulership over God’s creation, only over the airwaves and systems of the world after the first man sinned, thus transferring his allegiance to the devil (Eph 2:2). Nor did the devil have the power to destroy the earth and (as some claim) even the universe (Job 1:9-12).

Furthermore, Satan had no power to actually ascend into the heavenly realm to attack God Almighty, rather it was all bravado – in his heart and mind (Is 14:12-15). In truth, it was God himself who initiated the final separation, by giving the decree that banned the devil (and his angels) from ever again visiting/returning to the heavenly realm to appear before His throne. These visitations had been commanded by God for a limited period of time only – that is, after the devil was cursed in the Garden of Eden and no longer held the position as God’s covering cherub (Eze 28:14; Gen 3:14; Job 1:6-7).

This decree, to end the devil’s visitation rights to the heavenly realm, and thus to cast him down to the earth, never to return again, was given around the time Jesus fulfilled his ministry, just prior to His crucifixion and ascension to glory to sit at the right hand of God the Father as our Advocate. 

Now there was no place found in heaven for “the accuser of the brethren” any more (Rev 12:10). (John 12:21Phil 2:8-11; Acts 7:55-56; Rom 8:34; Eph 1:20. Also refer to Chapter 4, ‘When Was the Devil Cast Down to the Earth?’) 

And all of this was done in God’s timing and at His command. And so Satan, in his great wrath, turned his attention to destroying the church (Christians on earth), where he still maintains a level of power as the ruler of this present evil world (Gal 1:4)Today, for example, Christians in at least 50 countries are suffering from all manner of persecution.

In contrast, the gap theory teaches that the devil was not “a liar and a murderer from the beginning” but rather became a liar and a murderer millions or billions of years later. It also attributes imaginary powers to Satan over immense periods of time, during which his devilish exploits are said to have taken place and it is he who initiates war against God – at least twice (and possibly in the future, too).

Not only that but after God had cast the devil down to the “initial earth”, sometime during its 4.6 billion-year history, it is said that the Almighty continued to allow Satan access to the heavenly realms – from the beginning of the “renovation” right up till now! This is in spite of the fact that just before Jesus’s crucifixion, He proclaimed, “Now [at this present time] shall the prince of the world be cast out” (John 12:21)

Considering all of these things, I cannot see how the gap theory is from God. Rather, it is a diabolical teaching that elevates the devil’s claimed powers and has all the hallmarks of a doctrine formulated by the father of deception and lies.

a composite and compromised theology

In my investigations, I have shown how the gap theory is a creation doctrine shaped by the ancient Babylonian mystery religion, and which has partially adopted today’s evolutionism (the secular/mystical philosophy of an ancient earth).

For example, gap creation accepts Charles Lyell’s theory of uniformitarianism (ie. evolution’s geological time units of eons, eras, periods and epochs), which proposes to explain the history of the earth in terms of long ages. This is in spite of the fact that all the geological features making up earth’s history can be explained scientifically as a result of sudden catastrophic events, i.e. the global flood in Noah’s day in a judgement clearly communicated in God’s Word (Gen 6:6-7). (Refer to Chapter 7, ‘How is the Age of the Earth Measured?’)

Gap creation also accepts the Big Bang theory of evolutionary cosmology, utilising concepts that are at odds with Scripture and a timeframe and sequence of events that could not be more different from the Genesis account. (Refer Chapter 6, ‘Cosmology and the Age of the Earth’.)

Moreover, gap creationism is a creation story that attempts to accommodate the anti-God-of-the-Bible science establishment. And, in more ardent circles, its advocates join in ridiculing the literal and plain reading of Genesis as understood by Moses and the ancient Hebrews, as well as the world’s most renowned Hebraists today, claiming it to be ignorant and dangerous. (Refer to Chapter 8, ‘Six Biblical Conundrums of the Gap Theory’.)

a new version of an old creation myth

When I began my Christian journey (37 years ago) I was a gap creationist. Not because I had studied into it or could see any merits in its claims, but because I passively fell in with what my church taught me. (And besides, all those scientists couldn’t be wrong about an ancient earth, could they?) Fifteen years later, when someone challenged me with young earth creation arguments against Darwinian evolution, I began to research the matter. This gave me a good foundation when I was later confronted with theistic evolutionary teachings with all its unbiblical baggage.

Even so, I had never really examined the old-earth gap theory narrative, which I had simply pushed to one side and saw as irrelevant. After all, I reasoned, it didn’t embrace biological evolution, so it couldn’t be THAT bad. But when a friend threw down his gap-creation gauntlet, making disparaging comments against young earth creationists and stating emphatically that Genesis 1 describes a renovation of at least one creation, I knew I had to get to the bottom of the matter. 

Either way, I just wanted to know the Truth.

Over the last few years (as documented on my website), I have learnt that the gap theory has all the elements of a pagan cosmogony: ie. a colossal intergalactic battle of the gods, resulting in great destruction throughout the universe.

Furthermore, it has proven to be a creation narrative shaped by the Chaldean/Babylonian mystery religions and which relies on the writings of second century Jewish occult scholars and the (admitted) controversial teachings of certain 19th century Bible commenters. 

(Refer to Chapter 10, ‘The Gap Principle and Kabbalah Connection’.) 

These ideas have then been conjectured into the Scriptures. Add to this mix the widely accepted ancient-earth teaching proclaimed in evolutionary geology and cosmology and we have a new version of an old-creation myth.

But surely Satan’s masterstroke has been, in effect, to implant this pretend story (a construct of his heart’s desire: “I will be like the Most High”) indirectly into the very beginning of God’s Word itself, by way of an esoteric, fragmented gap theory narrative. And then to deceive Christians into taking this walk in the dark. After all, the next best thing to have actually ruled the planet for billions of years, fought God and destroyed His creation, is to make people think he had. (I have explored this in the history and origin of the gap theory in Chapters 9 and 10.)

God’s Word warns about deception – not to the world, which is already deceived, but to believers in Christ. Not only are we to receive the word in all readiness of mind and read the Scriptures daily, but we are also instructed to check whether or not what we are being told is true (Acts 17:11). God commands us to “preach the word” (2 Tim 4:2), not look to “Jewish fables and commandments of men who turn from the truth” (Titus 1:14). 

We are told: “Be diligent to present yourself approved to God, a worker who does not need to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth” (2 Tim 2:15). And the only way to do this is to see if a particular teaching conforms to ALL corresponding verses in the Bible, and make a judgment according to the weightier side of Scripture – in faith. I am also reminded of the apostle Paul’s message to the Corinthians – not to become conceited with the belief that we have special knowledge to go beyond what God has clearly communicated:  

“Now these things, brethren, I have figuratively transferred to myself and Apollos for your sakes, that you may learn in us not to think beyond what is written, that none of you may be puffed up on behalf of one against the other.” (1 Cor 4:6).


Reflecting on all these things, I have come to the following conclusions. The gospel message, as preached throughout the New Testament, is just not sufficient for some people, neither is the Bible itself. And so they go in search of hidden knowledge to make their Christian journey more interesting, exciting and relevant, in their minds and to others. Such people do not believe God when he said, “I have not spoken in secret, in a dark place of the earth” (Is 45:19). And so they want to “dig deeper” than what God has told us “clearly and not in riddles” (Num 12:8). As a consequence they wander off onto any number of rabbit tracks that criss-cross the theological landscape in their search for “special meanings” to fulfil their perceived needs.

The gap theory/gap principle is one of those recondite, meandering rabbit tracks. This is because it offers an attractive shared path with the old-age philosophy of the world along with an enticing and mysterious way to interpret the Scriptures (“Did God really say?”; Gen 3:5.)

And because there is no consensus among gap creationists regarding most of what was supposed to have occurred during this gap time-period (nor can there ever be any consensus, for it is a lie), it is a rabbit track that, inevitably, splinters off into any number of equally enigmatic trails.

This has become apparent to me by the very fact that I have spoken to dozens of gap theorists and each one has his or her very own version of events.

They even admit, ‘This is what I believe”. And I am not referring to minor issues.

For example, some say there could have been any number of creations before this one .

Some say God created soulless humanoids on the “initial creation” in preparation for the creation of man; some say the devil ruled over a form of intelligent beings who had the intellectual capability to buy and sell goods (quoting Eze 28:16); others disagree with both these views. 

Some say God destroyed the “original creation” and others say Satan destroyed it. Some say God could have changed the nature of all biological life on the “initial creation” after Satan rebelled. (Although why God would curse a physical creation on account of a spirit being’s sin, they can’t explain.) Others claim Satan could have had the power to do this; yet others insist that suffering and carnivory and death was God’s original ecological system and it is not connected to any curse.

Yet others say that they don’t believe in a previous creation, or that the devil ruled it, but they still maintain that an unspecified period of time existed between Genesis 1:1-2. One person claimed this time was necessary for God to be able to create the physical materials needed before He started putting it all together. Another said that God created the earth as a rock and left it floating in space for a length of time before Day 1 of the creation week (applying some elements of secular geological reasoning). And there are many other explanations. None of which are supported by Scriptures and all of which lack faith to believe what God has distinctly told us he did (Luke 18:8).

“Then God said, ‘Let there be light’; and there was light… Then God said… ‘Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters … Let the dry land appear’; and it was so… Then God said, ‘Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb that yields seed and the fruit tree that yields fruit…’; and it was so

“Then God said, ‘Let there be lights in the firmament to divide the day from the night… Let the waters abound with an abundance of living creatures and let birds fly above the earth… Let the earth bring forth the living creatures according to its kind: cattle and creeping thing and beast of the earth…; and it was so. Then God said, ‘Let Us make man in Our image …” (Gen 1).

“Let all the earth fear the LORD; Let all the inhabitants of the world stand in awe of Him.  For He spoke, and it was done; He commanded, and it stood fast” (Ps 33:8-9). 

The fact is, it doesn’t matter what we think or what we believe or what could have happened. The only thing that matters is what GOD SAID happened!

“For in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that in them is, and rested the seventh day: wherefore the LORD blessed the sabbath day, and hallowed it” (Ex 20:11).

This is the description of the first and only version of the earth, in which God made EVERYTHING – heaven and earth and all that is in them. The Bible does speak of a second earth, but that will not take place until the fulfilment of several events (1 Thess 4:16-17; Revelation 20; 1 Cor 15:25-26; 1 John 3:2). Only then will the physical heavens and earth, and all that is in them, have served their purpose, and they will perish. “Like a cloak you will fold them up, and they will be changed” (Heb 1:10-13). 

“Now I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away. Also there was no more sea. Then I, John, saw the holy city, New Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband” (Rev 21)

 In short, the Bible only speaks about two creations – the first, in which heaven and earth were made in six days, and the second, which will come into existence after the millennium. 

gap creation’s need to correct the bible

Gap creationism (and all old-earth theories) alter our view of Scripture, by insisting that God’s Word is not enough by itself. And so a person is directed to “experts” who believe they have a more accurate knowledge to that of Moses, Jesus and Paul as recorded in the Bible:

In Gen 1:2, they say, the word “was” should have been “became”. And in Genesis chapters 1 and 2, the word “made” should be “remade, and the word “created” should be “re-created. Furthermore, Jesus used the wrong word in Mark 10:6, where he should have specified “in the beginning of the ‘re-creation God made them male and female”.

Also, Scripture is wrong in Gen 1:16, when it states that on the fourth day “God made the two great lights… [and] he made the stars, also”. This is because the sun, moon and stars had been made billions of years before the earth, in accordance with secular cosmology. And in John 8:44, Jesus must have been mistaken when He claimed that the devil “was a murderer from the beginning”, because the devil did not rebel and commit murder (of Adam and all humanity to follow) until billions of years after he was created, and so on and so on… (Refer to Chapter 1, ‘The Gap Theory’s Distortion of Language’, and Chapter 3, ‘Devil in the Garden’.)

And when Paul said that death is the enemy and the result of sin, and the WHOLE creation was subjected to bondage and groans in pain, he really only meant part of it.

This is because suffering and death were natural biological processes already existing in the “initial creation” for billions of years before Adam sinned (1 Cor 15:26; Rom 8:20-22). (Refer to Chapter 5, ‘How Did Evil Develop?’) And so on and so on…

The belief among some Christians that the clear reading of Scripture is misleading or not sufficient, and the subsequent desire of wanting to “go beyond what is written” (1 Cor 4:6), is an ingeniously contrived diversion formulated by the god of this world. That is because all of these theological rabbit tracks have one thing in common.

They are designed by our Adversary, the devil, to draw the focus of believers into ungodly mysteries and away from what matters most, or at least to plant unstable ideas in our minds that question the clarity, steadfastness, power and authority of God’s word. And the more a person strays from the plumbline of God’s Word, the further they can be led, degree by degree, step by step, away from the narrow path, especially, as the Bible warns, in the latter days (1 Tim 4:2;2 Thess 2:3). 

Or maybe that is how we began our Christian journey and we need to discover the plumbline of God’s Word!

Considering all these diversional tracks leads me to my final “chapter” – What is the Gospel?

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“For Satan himself transforms himself into an angel of light.” (2 Cor 11:14) “Now the Spirit expressly says that in latter times some will depart from the faith, giving heed to deceiving spirits and doctrines of demons…” (Titus 4:1)